MINERIA CARBON CAUSA REASENTAMIENTO HUMANO

CONTAMINACION ATMOSFERICA CAUSADA POR LA MINERIA DEL CARBON CAUSA REASENTAMIENTO HUMANO INVOLUNTARIO: DRUMMOND, COLOMBIAN NATURAL RESOURCES, VALE COAL LTD., SUCURSAL COLOMBIA Y GLENCORE- PRODECO TIENEN LA OBLIGACION DE REUBICAR A TRES POBLACIONES A CAUSA DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN GENERADA POR LA MINERIA DEL CARBON EN COLOMBIA.

 

El negocio de la minería del carbón en Colombia, no sólo ha causado la destrucción y degradación del suelo y la contaminación de aguas superficiales y subterráneas, sino que ha causado además una seria contaminación atmosférica, que desencadenó la necesidad de ordenar la reubicación de tres comunidades: PLAN BONITO, EL HATILLO Y BOQUERON, corregimientos de los municipios de El Paso y La Jagua de Ibirico respectivamente en el Departamento del Cesar, que juntas suman 2.000 personas aproximadamente. La seria contaminación atmosférica en estas poblaciones supera el 75% de los límites legales permisibles de contaminación por material particulado (MP) y MP10, colocándose en grave riesgo la vida y salud de las personas pertenecientes a estas poblaciones, por lo cual el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, (hoy Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible), expidió las Resoluciones No.970 y 1525 del 2.010, por medio de las cuales se ordenó que en forma proporcional a la contaminación causada por la explotación del preciado mineral las multinacionales DRUMMOND, NATURAL RESOURCES (de propiedad de GOLDMAN & SACHS), VALE COAL COLOMBIA LTD., SUCURSAL COLOMBIA y GLENCORE- PRODECO, debían reubicar en el término de 1 año contado a partir de la ejecutoria de las resoluciones a PLAN BONITO y en el término de 2 años, contados a partir de la ejecutoria de las resoluciones mencionadas a BOQUERON Y EL HATILLO, reasentamiento que se entiende involuntario, el cual debe ceñirse a las directrices que para estos casos ha señalado el Banco Mundial y el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo- BID-, quedando obligadas además, a la contratación de un interventor, un operador para realizar el reasentamiento y la constitución de una fiducia mercantil que garantice los recursos para la ejecución de tal reasentamiento.

Tabla que indica la proporción de cada empresa en el reasentamiento. (Res. 970/10)

Pues bien, las Resoluciones 970 y 1525 del 2.010, quedaron en firme el día 15 de Septiembre del 2.010, por lo tanto la obligación de reasentamiento feneció para PLAN BONITO el día 15 de Septiembre del 2.011 y para EL HATILLO y BOQUERON, el día 15 de Septiembre del 2.012, sin que hasta la fecha estas multinacionales hayan cumplido con las obligaciones impuestas, lo que originó por parte del ANLA (Autoridad Nacional de Licencias Ambientales), la apertura de proceso sancionatorio en su contra, mediante el Auto No. 0457 del 1 de Marzo del 2.012, por haber modificado e incumplido con los términos para ejecutar cada una de las obligaciones impuestas. No obstante lo anterior, no es suficiente esta medida, ya que el Régimen Sancionatorio Ambiental en Colombia, determinado por la Ley 1333 del 2.009, establece como multa máxima 40 salarios mínimos, que actualmente equivaldría a la suma de ($2.947.500.000,oo) millones de pesos colombianos, lo que equivale en dólares a la suma de (usd 1.473.750), suma irrisoria que no afecta para nada las operaciones financieras de estos colosos mineros.- Es de suponer que el ANLA, no se atrevería, dada la magnitud del daño, el cual no sólo se limita al daño ambiental sino a la vulneración de derechos humanos fundamentales a la VIDA y la SALUD, a imponer como sanción el CIERRE DEFINITIVO DE LOS PROYECTOS MINEROS (MINAS) O REVOCATORIA DE LA LICENCIA AMBIENTAL, sanciones prevista por el régimen sancionatorio ambiental; tesis que argumentamos, teniendo en cuenta que por el incumplimiento de lo impuesto en las resoluciones Nos. 970 Y 1525 DEL 2.010, incumplimiento que dio origen al proceso sancionatorio que hemos mencionado, impusieron como medida preventiva (cautelar), sólo amonestación escrita, cuando por la magnitud del daño, y los derechos fundamentales en juego, lo que procedía era medida preventiva de suspensión de actividades.- Pero sabemos que hay muchos intereses económicos en juego y que todos los gobiernos han respaldado de una u otra forma a las multinacionales mineras.- Las comunidades ya han denunciado estos hechos aberrantes ante la comunidad internacional y las Naciones Unidas, declarándose en estado de emergencia alimentaria, toda vez que no tienen medios de subsistencia, y no tienen como cultivar o trabajar; sin que hasta la fecha las multinacionales y el operador del reasentamiento, la canadiense Replan, hayan ejecutado de forma seria el plan de reasentamiento.-

De lo anterior, sin temor a equivocarnos podemos concluir que en Colombia no se va a lograr la justicia que requerimos, y se hace necesario e inminente acudir a instancias internacionales para lograr verdadera y efectiva justicia, antes que la locomotora minera del carbón sólo deje muerte y desolación a su paso.

 

Liliana Guerrero Ramírez.-

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